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3.9 Adverbs

3.9.1 Form

Derived adverbs are formed by adding the ending e to the stem.
E.g.: bonewell, kuŝelying, facileeasily, rapidefast, quickly, ekzakteexactly, bluebluely, sabateon Saturday, noktein the night, skribein writing
Many of them are derived from prepositions:
antataŭbefore antataŭeahead
apudbeside apudenearby (adv.)
dumduring dumein the meantime
eksteroutside of ekstereoutside
kontraŭagainst kontraŭevice versa, conversely
kunwith kunetogether
postafter posteafterward
subunder subedown
superabove supereabove (adv.).

Many of the adverbs are not derived, so called primitive.
EG: nunnow, jamalready, ĉinear to me, ankoraŭstill, baldaŭsoon, hodiaŭtoday, tujimmediately, plumore, trevery, ankaŭalso, dothus, nuronly

Some adverbs are part of the system of so called correlatives (see chapter 3.6)

3.9.2 Comparison

Comparison of adverbs is done analytically. Comparative is formed by pli + positive, superlative by plej + positive.
pli bone
plej bone

Mi faras tiel bone kiel vi.I work as good as you.
Mi faras pli bone kiel vi.I work better than you do.
Mi faras plej bone el ni.I work best from us.
It is also possible to compare in opposite direction using prefix mal – then comparative is formed by malpli + positive, superlative by malplej + positive. It is equivalent to put prefix to the adverb pli/plej and to the compared adverb.
malpli bone
less well
malplej bone
the least well
Vi estas malpli bela ol ŝi. = Vi estas pli malbela ol ŝi.You are uglier than she is.
Vi estas malplej bela ol ni. = Vi estas plej malbela ol ni.You are the ugliest from us.
Adjectives compare the same way (see 3.4.2)

3.9.3 Inflection

Adverbs of place can form accusative to mark the direction.
hejmeat home (place): Mi estas hejme.I am home.
hejmenat home (direction): Mi iras hejmen.I go home.
kiewhere (place): Kie vi estas?Where are you?
kienwhere (direction):  Kien vi kuras? – Where do you run?