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5.1 Accusative

Accussative is distinguished by nouns, adjectives, pronouns and adverbs of place. It is formed by the ending n and has following functions:
  1. Direct object. Accusative marks direct object in the sentence.
    La knabon mordis la hundo.The boy was bit by the dog.
  2. Motion toward. Accusative marks motion toward a certain place, prepositive marks position. It is not used after prepositions al – `to' and ĝis – `up to', because they can show only direction. It is possible to omit the preposition en and to use the prase in accusative form alone. However, this is recommended only with names of cities and countries).
    Mi veturas (en) Londonon. = Mi veturas al Londono.I go to London. vs. Mi estas en London.I am in London.
    Mi promenis en la ĝardenon.I walked into the garden. vs. Mi promenis en la ĝardeno.I was walking in the garden. (I was already in the garden, walking around)
    Mi iras tien.I go there. vs. Mi estas tie.I am there.
    Mi iras hejmen.I am going home. vs. Mi estas hejme.I am home.
    La vagonaro kuras de Hanovero Berlinon.(FK.209)The train goes from Hanover to Berlin.
  3. Date.
    Hodiaŭ estas la duan de julio.Today, it is July 2.
  4. Time interval.
    Li laboras tutantagon.He works the whole day.
  5. Weight, price, measure.
    Mi pezas okdek kilogramojn.I weigh 80 kg.
    Ĝi kostas dekdolarojn.It costs $10.
    La vojo estas longa cent kilometrojn.The way is 100 km long.